BY J.B. HANDLEY September 18, 2017
In the December 2017 issue of the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry and released online today, Dr. Christopher Shaw and colleagues at the University of British Columbia have established convincing biological evidence linking aluminum adjuvant used in vaccines to autism.
“This is the paper I have been waiting for. This paper reports measurements of cytokines in the brains of animals injected with aluminum adjuvant as neonates. The same cytokines are elevated as in human autism. IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 are elevated for example. Male animals are more strongly affected. It’s a perfect match to human autism.”
VANCOUVER, British Columbia — Just two weeks ago, I wrote about a study from France that raised major concerns about aluminum adjuvant used in vaccines. The French studyauthors wrote: “Concerns about its [aluminum adjuvant’s] safety emerged following recognition of its unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence within immune cells in some individuals, and reports of chronic fatigue syndrome, cognitive dysfunction, myalgia, dysautonomia and autoimmune/inflammatory features temporally linked to multiple Al [aluminum]-containing vaccine administrations.”
In a nutshell, the French study found that when smaller doses of aluminum adjuvant were consistently injected over a short period of time — like during childhood vaccinations —the aluminum was more likely to end up in the brain, and the French scientists issued a stern warning about the use of aluminum adjuvant in vaccines:
In the context of massive development of vaccine-based strategies worldwide, the present study may suggest that aluminium adjuvant toxicokinetics and safety require reevaluation.
Canadian researchers establish direct link
In the December 2017 issue of the Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry and released online today, Dr. Christopher Shaw and colleagues have established convincing biological evidence linking aluminum adjuvant to autism. The study’s title alone should cause concern for parents everywhere:
Subcutaneous injections of aluminum at vaccine adjuvant levels activate innate immune genes in mouse brain that are homologous with biomarkers of autism
As the study authors state:
“It thus appears that Al [aluminum adjuvant] triggered innate immune system activation and altered cholinergic activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to Al exposure as only the expression levels of NF-κB inhibitor and TNFA were altered. Regional patterns of gene expression alterations also exhibited gender differences, as frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and cerebellum in females. Thus, Al adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Al′s toxic effects.”
It’s critical to note that the researchers found gender differences in how the mice responded, with male mice showing higher susceptibility, which is consistent with what we are seeing in autism: roughly 80% of the cases are boys.
The Canadian researchers included a diagram in their study that showed how aluminum adjuvant can contribute to an inflammatory cascade in the brain that leads to autism.
What does this mean in plain English?
Six months ago, I wrote an article about how close it appeared international scientists were to establishing a clear biological basis for how aluminum adjuvant can create autism. My article has been read more than 250,000 times, and I have heard from scientists from all over the world (most unwilling to let me quote them in public, which is its own great tragedy), including a scientist who has created a great website called Vaccine Papers. I asked “VP” about the importance of this study, and words were not minced:
This is the paper I have been waiting for.
This paper reports measurements of cytokines in the brains of animals injected with aluminum adjuvant as neonates. The same cytokines are elevated as in human autism. IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 are elevated for example. Male animals are more strongly affected. It’s a perfect match to human autism.
The paper includes a number of strong statements about vaccine causality.
This paper is hugely important because it shows IL-6 elevation in the brain, which of course provides a firm link to the immune activation literature. It is strong evidence supporting the al adjuvant IL-6 autism hypothesis.
A Clear Hypothesis
If you would like to understand this complex issue in greater detail, I hope you will consider reading my widely read article from six months ago:
BY J.B. HANDLEY February 22, 2017healthcareinamerica.us
For the sake of brevity, here are the four key scientific discoveries I discussed in this lengthy article, most of which has happened in the last thirty-six months, appearing to show a clear link between aluminum adjuvant from vaccines and autism.
Discovery #1: “Maternal Immune Activation” can cause autism
Studies that support Discovery #1:
Some helpful quotes from the above research to help contextualize Discovery #1:
“As we learn more about the connections between the brain and the immune system, we find that these seemingly independent networks of cells are, in fact, continually talking to each other. As an adult, the activation of your immune system causes many striking changes in your behavior — increased sleep, loss of appetite, less social interaction — and, of course, headaches. Conversely, stress in your life (as perceived by your brain) can influence immune function — the brain regulates immune organs, such as the spleen, via the autonomic nervous system.
Recent evidence shows that this brain-immune conversation actually starts during the development of the embryo, where the state of the mother’s immune system can alter the growth of cells in the fetal brain. As we shall see, such alterations can lead to an increased risk of schizophrenia or autism in the offspring.” — Dr. Paul Patterson, CalTech
“There is also very striking evidence of immune dysregulation in the brain itself. Just last year, a group led by Carlos Pardo at Johns Hopkins found what they’re calling a “neural inflammation” in postmortem examination of brains of patients with autism who died between the ages of eight and 44 years. But these people weren’t infected — they died of such things as drowning or heart attacks. The study found that the microglial cells, which act as the brain’s own immune system, were activated. The study also found amazing increases of certain cytokines in the brain, and of others in the cerebro- spinal fluid. This is is a landmark paper, in my opinion. It presents the first evidence that there’s an ongoing, permanent immune-system activation in the brains of autistic people. It’s a subclinical state, because there’s no overt infection. But it’s there.” — Dr. Paul Patterson, CalTech
“In conclusion, the present PET measurements revealed marked activation of microglia in multiple brain regions of young adults with ASD. The results strongly support the contention that immune abnormalities contribute to the etiology of ASD.” — Dr. Carlos Pardo, Johns Hopkins
“Cytokines are produced by the white blood cells, and their levels in the blood increase when we get an infection…We think that maternal immune activation alters brain circuits…there’s that permanent, subclinical, altered immune state in the autistic brain — those increased cytokine levels…are they [cytokines] actually interacting with the brain in an ongoing fashion, with consequences visible in the patients’ behavior? I favor [the cytokine] hypothesis.” — Dr. Paul Patterson, CalTech
“Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring.” — Dr. Paul Patterson, CalTech
“In this rhesus monkey model, MIA yields offspring with abnormal repetitive behaviors, communication, and social interactions. These results extended the findings in rodent MIA models to more human-like behaviors resembling those in both autism and schizophrenia.” — UC Davis MIND Institute
“In summary, our study supports a critical role of IL-6 elevation in modulating autism-like behaviors through impairments on synapse formation, dendritic spine development, as well as on neuronal circuit balance. These findings suggest that manipulation of IL-6 may be a promising avenue for therapeutic interventions.” —Dr. Xiaohong Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Discovery #2: Aluminum Adjuvant causes immune activation and is far more neurotoxic than previously thought
Studies that support Discovery #2:
- Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice
- Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration
- Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations
- Slow CCL2-dependent translocation of biopersistent particles from muscle to brain
Some helpful quotes from the above research to help contextualize Discovery #2:
“In addition, the continued use of aluminum adjuvants in various vaccines (i.e., Hepatitis A and B, DPT, and so on) for the general public may have even more widespread health implications. Until vaccine safety can be comprehensively demonstrated by controlled long-term studies that examine the impact on the nervous system in detail, many of those already vaccinated as well as those currently receiving injections may be at risk in the future. Whether the risk of protection from a dreaded disease outweighs the risk of toxicity is a question that demands urgent attention.” — Dr. Christoper Shaw, University of British Columbia
“Overall, the results reported here mirror previous work that has clearly demonstrated that aluminum, in both oral and injected forms, can be neurotoxic. Potential toxic mechanisms of action for aluminum may include enhancement of inflammation (i.e., microgliosis)…” — Dr. Christoper Shaw, University of British Columbia
“…it is somewhat surprising to find that in spite of over 80 years of use, the safety of Al adjuvants continues to rest on assumptions rather than scientific evidence.For example, nothing is known about the toxicology and pharmacokinetics of Al adjuvants in infants and children…Yet, in spite of these observations children continue regularly to be exposed to much higher levels of Al adjuvants than adults, via routine childhood vaccination programmes.” — Dr. Lucija Tomljenovic, University of British Columbia
“However, continuously escalating doses of this poorly biodegradable adjuvant in the population may become insidiously unsafe, especially in the case of overimmunization or immature/altered blood brain barrier…” —Dr. Josette Cadusseau, Université Paris
“Thus alum and other poorly biodegradable materials taken up at the periphery by phagocytes circulate in the lymphatic and blood circulation and can enter the brain using a Trojan horse mechanism similar to that used by infectious particles. Previous experiments have shown that alum administration can cause CNS dysfunction and damage, casting doubts on the exact level of alum safety.” — Dr. Josette Cadusseau, Université Paris
“We conclude that Alhydrogel [aluminum adjuvant] injected at low dose in mouse muscle may selectively induce long-term Al cerebral accumulation and neurotoxic effects. To explain this unexpected result, an avenue that could be explored in the future relates to the adjuvant size since the injected suspensions corresponding to the lowest dose, but not to the highest doses, exclusively contained small agglomerates in the bacteria-size range known to favour capture and, presumably, transportation by monocyte-lineage cells. In any event, the view that Alhydrogel neurotoxicity obeys ‘the dose makes the poison’ rule of classical chemical toxicity appears overly simplistic.” —Dr. Romain K. Gherardi, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC)
“In the context of massive development of vaccine-based strategies worldwide, the present study may suggest that aluminium adjuvant toxicokinetics and safety require reevaluation.” — Dr. Romain K. Gherardi, Université Paris Est Créteil (UPEC)
Discovery #3: Aluminum can increase IL-6 in the brain
Studies that support Discovery #3:
- Neuroprotective Effect of Nanodiamond in Alzheimer’s Disease Rat Model: a Pivotal Role for Modulating NF-κB and STAT3 Signaling
Some helpful quotes from the above research to help contextualize Discovery #3:
“The results also showed that aluminum administration increased the hippocampus pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α by 3.8-fold, IL-6 by 4-fold, and iNOS by 3.8-fold compared to the normal control group.” —Dr. Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Cairo University
Most vaccines contain aluminum, and aluminum is a proven neurotoxin, in amounts received from vaccines. Vaccines in combination can result in toxic aluminum overload. Even the aluminum in a single vaccine can be harmful because the aluminum is in a form that is more dangerous than ingested aluminum. Specifically, vaccine aluminum is in nanoparticulate form, which is harder for the body to eliminate, and because it is transported around the body differently than ingested aluminum.
It is natural and normal to ingest small doses of aluminum from food and water. Its not good for you, but the body has adequate defenses. Absorption of ingested Al is low, about 0.3%, so about 99.7% is eliminated in feces. Ingested aluminum is in ionic form (individual charged atoms), which is readily removed by the kidneys. Also, ionic aluminum is blocked from entering the brain by the blood brain barrier. The low absorption, rapid elimination by the kidneys and barrier to brain entry adequately protects the brain from aluminum.
However, nanoparticulate aluminum from vaccines cannot be removed by the kidneys. The particles are far too large to be filtered out by the kidneys. The Al nanoparticles do dissolve slowly (converting to ionic aluminum). But long before they can dissolve completely, the Al nanoparticles are “eaten” by immune system cells called macrophages. In other words, the particles wind up inside the macrophages. Once loaded with the Al nanoparticles, the macrophages spread aluminum as they travel through the body. This is dangerous, because the Al-loaded macrophages carry Al nanoparticles to tissues (e.g. the brain) that are damaged by very small amounts of aluminum. — Vaccine Papers
“Here we show that mice with elevated IL-6 in the brain dis- play many autistic features, including impaired cognitive abilities, deficits in learning, abnormal anxiety traits and habituations, as well as decreased social interactions. IL-6 elevation caused alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic formations and disrupted the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions. IL-6 elevation also resulted in an abnormal change in the shape, length and distributing pattern of dendritic spines. These findings suggest that IL-6 elevation in the brain could mediate autistic-like behaviors, possibly through the imbalances of neural circuitry and impairments of synaptic plasticity.” —Dr. Xiaohong Li, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Discovery #4: Hepatitis B vaccine induces IL-6 in postnatal rats
Studies that support Discovery #4:
[Author’s note: This fourth discovery was really the subject of my extensive article, because it discussed a new paper that seemed to tie everything together. The Canadian paper above ties everything together even more tightly.]
- Neonatal vaccination with bacillus Calmette–Guérin and hepatitis B vaccines modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats
Some helpful quotes from the above research to help contextualize Discovery #4:
“An important new study by Li et al. reports the effects of bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) vaccine (for tuberculosis) and hepatitis B vaccine on brain development in infant rats. The study relates the observed brain changes to the type of immune activation (Th1 or Th2, explained below) stimulated by the vaccines. The BCG and hep B vaccines had opposite effects on the brain (BCG being beneficial, and hep B being detrimental), and a combination of both vaccines resulted in cancellation of the effects.
This is the first study to test the effects of immune activation by vaccination on brain development. All other studies of immune activation have used essentially pathological conditions that mimic infection and induce a strong fever. A criticism I have heard often from vaccine advocates is that the immune activation experiments are not relevant to vaccines because vaccines cause a milder immune activation than injections of poly-IC or lipopolysaccharide (two types of immune system activators).
This new study demonstrates that vaccines can affect brain development via immune activation. Hence, the immune activation experiments are relevant to vaccines…The hep B vaccine increased IL-6 in the hippocampus (the only brain region analyzed for cytokines).” — Vaccine Papers
Four discoveries, a clear path to autism
Here’s a simple graphic that I think spells out the process of triggering autism very clearly, as demonstrated by the published science I have shared with you above through the four discoveries.
The new Canadian study, just published, makes these findings even more clear, and more robust, and provides even greater detail into HOW aluminum adjuvant leads to autism.
When I published my article back in February, I heard from scientists from all over the world. I heard from pediatricians. I heard from board members at Autism Speaks. Many agreed with me: this was disturbing and important work, and it may well describe where all this autism is coming from. What’s happened since that time? Nothing.
There’s no mechanism for reviewing or putting all this published science together. The scientists doing this great work are perpetually nervous that they will lose their funding source or get “Wakefielded.” There’s no group responsible for putting all these published scientists in a room and figuring out what we do about this giant mess, and what all this information means. Every minute, a new child is diagnosed with autism, and every minute, it strikes me that autism may be completely AVOIDABLE. If you’re reading this, all I can ask is that you share the information widely, and that if you happen to be in a position of influence, please help save our kids.
In my opinion, we are much, much closer to understanding how autism has been triggered in so many children, and I hope this article is another step on the path to the truth. And, for so many of you out there doing everything you can to help you son or daughter with autism live the best possible life, perhaps a clearer understanding of how their autism was triggered will improve their chances for recovery.
For those of you interested in hearing from Dr. Shaw directly, here’s a video excerpt (just under 2 minutes) from the movie The Greater Good where Dr. Shaw discusses an earlier study he and his colleagues conducted looking at aluminum adjuvant (Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration):
J.B. Handley is the father of a child with Autism. He and his wife co-founded Generation Rescue, a national autism charity. He spent his career in the private equity industry and received his undergraduate degree with honors from Stanford University. He is also the author of “The Only Vaccine Guide a New Parent Will Ever Need” , “An Angry Father’s Guide to Vaccine-Autism Science”, and “7 reasons CDC employees should be “crying in the hallways” Mr. Handley has started a podcast called “How to End the Autism Epidemic” — you might enjoy his first six interviews: